Nature and Life – Episode 202 (Climate Change and Coastal Biodiversity)

The Himalayan range is sited in the north of Bangladesh.
So a huge area has been emerged in Bangladesh due to the siltation carried in by the flowing rivers from upstream.
It is unique among the lowland countries of the world.
The massive Bay-of-Bengal is sited in the south of the country.
As a result, Bangladesh is rich with natural resources and also a highly disaster vulnerable country.
So our coastal biodiversity is severely affected by the adverse impacts of climate change.
Deforestation for unplanned industrialization, excessive use of chemical fertilizers in the cropland, vehicles, brick fields etc. are the reasons behind the temperature rise.
Moreover, the amount of carbon is gradually increasing in the atmosphere due to continuous burning of fossil fuel.
Various Greenhouse gases are emitting from these.
As the number of trees is decreasing, such massive amount of carbon is not being absorbed proportionately.
So the surface of the earth is gradually becoming heated.
Development works throughout the world are accelerating the changes in climate.
Developed countries are mainly responsible for this.
But the coastal region of Bangladesh and its biodiversity are suffering due to climate change.
Our coastal region is famous for biodiversity throughout the world.
Because the largest mangrove forest of the world Sundarbans is sited in this region.
This forest is rich with wildlife.
World famous Royal Bengal Tiger, Saltwater Crocodile, Spotted deer etc. wildlife roam in this forest.
Apart from those, various aquatic & terrestrial amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are also available in here.
This forest is not only rich with biodiversity, but also protecting coastal people from various natural disasters and also providing millions of people with livelihood.
But the biodiversity of Sundarbans is now threatened due to sea level rise and increased salinity caused by adverse impacts of climate change.
Tidal surges are inundating many places.
Wildlife’s roaming grounds are gradually shrinking.
If it continues like this, the Sundarbans may encounter severe damage.
Various species of wildlife and plants may go extinct.
Rhinos have already gone extinct from this forest.
Due to climate change natural disasters like- tornados and cyclones are frequently hitting our coastal region with increased ferocity.
Sudden River erosion is occurring in many places.
As a result, coastal forestlands are shrinking.
Recently the biodiversity of coastal islands and chars has also became endangered.
Our only coral island Saint Martin is also threatened now due to climate change.
The area of the Island is gradually shrinking.
So plant diversity is also decreasing.
The coral reef is being damaged.
As a result, breeding system of aquatic organisms is being hampered.
Moreover, due to increased salinity the number of aquatic organisms is gradually decreasing.
Climate change is severely affecting our fish resources.
Though previously a huge quantity of fishes were available in various parts of estuary and deep sea, the availability of fishes has now decreased substantially.
Intrusion of saltwater is unbalancing the ecosystem of coastal canals, beels and ponds.
This is hampering the lifecycle of aquatic organisms including our indigenous fishes.
Excessive rainfall and absence of rainfall is one of the impacts of climate change.
Excessive rainfall is often flooding the coastal region.
As a result, biodiversity of flooded areas are being harmed, numerous people are being displaced.
Salinity is increasing in the coastal croplands due to adverse impacts of climate change.
Moreover, as saltwater is penetrating deep inside the earth, agricultural production is also being hampered.
As a result, scarcity of fresh drinking water is occurring and crops are wasting.
On the other hand, numerous people are migrating in quest of livelihood.
Climate change is now a global problem.
No person, institution or country can deal with the adverse impacts of climate change alone.
To fight back, we all have to find out the prime reasons of the problem and work together.
We all have to have a moral consideration to conserve biodiversity.
We have to avoid destructive industrialization and adopt eco-friendly technologies.
We have to prevent tornados, cyclones etc. in coastal region through afforestation.
Only then our coastal region and its biodiversity will survive.